Greetings dear Colleagues!
Let me invite You to a solemn event dedicated to the publication of the final model of the black sea series of battleships - the model of the battleship "Empress Catherine the Great".
Where does the ship begin? Of course – with the assigned Name!
With this Name, the ship is born, with the name of the ship to serve his country, with this Name he dies.
But with the prototype of my model everything turned out a little differently.
To begin with, I will give a brief reference.
On October 17, 1911, six days before the official launch, the new battleships were added to the lists of the black sea fleet under the names "Empress Maria", "Emperor Alexander III" and "Catherine II".
Moreover, only Ekaterina II was built at the shipyard of the Nikolaev Plant Society plants and shipyards (Anziv, "Nawal").
Driven, presumably, by a desire to imitate their sovereign parent, Nicholas II approved for a third of the black sea dreadnought, the name "Catherine II", just as Alexander III called in 1883, the first seagoing battleship then reviving the black sea fleet. And no one noticed (or dared to suggest to the autocrat) the incongruity that in the family of three ships named after the reigning persons, one for some reason was without the befitting Imperial title. But Onziv did not appreciate the Imperial ideas, malausa the prestige factory, and spur of the moment in the documents, drawings and correspondence, began to call their ship "Empress Catherine II". Naturally, by analogy the name was accepted and under Admiralty Spitz while suddenly, having seen in "New time" the message on descent on water in Nikolaev "Empress Catherine II" (as in the front report called the ship and its commander), the Minister I. K. Grigorovich woke up and ordered to name the ship strictly in accordance with the higher orders for the fleet on 11 October 1911 No. 299 of October 3, 1883, No. 110. To contradict the Minister, of course, did not: "Catherine" so "Catherine". But universally recognized as "the Empress" could not be eradicated. The fact had to admit, and June 14, 1915, issued a new order in which the ship became known as "Catherine the Great".
But the story with the renaming of the ship is not over. In light of the revolutionary events of 1917, the ship was renamed again. This time since April 16, 1917 it began to bear a name - "Free Russia". With this name he finished his service to the Motherland.
The design of the hull and the booking system of the "Chernomorets" basically corresponded to the project of the Baltic dreadnoughts, but were partially modified.
If the "Empress Maria" was shorter by 13 m and wider by 0.4 m of the Baltic battleships, then in the same way, representing essentially an independent type (1.47 m longer, 0.91 m wider and 1183 t more "Empress Maria" in displacement), required the development of its own drawings and "Empress Catherine II". In a word, of serial construction to say could only conditionally.
The work was affected not only by the diseases of the growth of plants, which for the first time built such large ships, but also so characteristic of the domestic shipbuilding "improvements" already during construction, which led to super-project overload, which exceeded 860 tons. As a result, in addition to an increase in precipitation by 0.3 m, an annoying trim on the nose was formed. In other words, the ship "sat pig". Fortunately, the rise of the deck in the nose hid it.
"Empress Catherine II" using experience "Empress Maria", when the completion has made necessary changes by shifting mass of all possible goods into two spacey in the stern.
The battleship "Empress Catherine II", founded simultaneously with the battleship "Empress Maria", was launched only on may 24, 1914. This was due to the fact that the Maritime Ministry decided to be the first to put into operation the battleship "Empress Maria". To reduce the completion period and accelerate the commissioning of the second black sea battleship, the Ministry of the Sea had to take a number of urgent measures. The plant of the manufacturer passed the armor of the towers, combat logging, boiler casings and smoke stacks from the battleship "Emperor Alexander III", as well as spare machines 305-mm guns of the battleships "Sevastopol" and "Poltava". The administration of the plant introduced night shifts. Freed from the construction of destroyers of the type "Novik" workers were sent to the battleship.
The black sea dreadnoughts were still without the obviously necessary constructive protection. Vs min boom experienced portray against torpedoes — nets. The structure of their performances and automatic cleaning was established in accordance with the patent of the English inventor Kemp: a license for its production of Onsep acquired with the right of use on all built in Russia the ships. In extreme cases, for crossing minefields ahead of the dreadnoughts were supposed to be "Sinop" and "Rostislav", which was already preparing protective caissons.
November 2, 1915 the ship was transferred from Nikolaev to Sevastopol, the battleship was presented for sea trials.
On the morning of November 26, the ship took off from the barrel and went to sea on the measuring line Cape AI-Todor - Cape Megan. 28 Nov at 13 o'clock the battleship "Empress Catherine the Great" returned to Sevastopol. In the dock spent cleaning and painting of the cladding of the sides and bottom patented composition "Moravia" against hull, he had a dark green tint. On November 30, after the inspection of the boilers, the main and auxiliary mechanisms were accepted to the Treasury.
Navy began the week, let me briefly tell me about them.
Together with the cruiser "Memory mercury" battleship was part of the second tactical maneuver group. He participated in raids on the Turkish coast.
The first meeting with "Goeben" fell directly on the first combat campaign of "Empress Catherine the great" (the torture of her artillery and artillery fire control devices were completed just a month before). The meeting took place at the island Kichen in the morning of 26 December 1915, thanks to the brilliant actions of the destroyers "Shrill" and "Passionate", who put out to sea "Goeben" in the waiting Russian battleship. Identifying his opponent, the German battleship immediately turned to the Bosphorus.
In an effort, apparently, with the maximum effect to use the power of the onboard volley, "Empress Catherine the Great", not immediately fell on the course of the chase, and for some time went in parallel. This was enough to "Goeben" managed to still realize its advantage in speed. Surrounded by fountains of water from the falling shells of the Russian battleship he has, however, managed to increase the distance, which stood at the beginning of the battle 125 KB and evade pursuit. In the same way from under fire "Empress Catherine the great" on April 3, 1916 turned out and "Breslau".
"Goeben" in early July, 1916, made first during the war, far RAID to Novorossiysk. According to the results of intelligence to the Bosphorus hastily headed and "Empress Catherine the Great." However, the Commander of the fleet Admiral A. A. Ebergard went to sea only after receiving news of the bombing of "Goeben" and "Breslau" Tuapse and Sochi. Not having met "Goeben" in the sea and deciding that the German cruiser has already managed to go to the Bosphorus, AA Ebergard returned to Sevastopol, Recalling and "Empress Catherine the Great." Meanwhile, "Goeben" safely passed into the Bosphorus from the rumelian coast.
This is too obvious an oversight that caused the Navy General resentment and approved for Commander nicknamed "Gabungan" and was apparently the reason for his removal. In his place arrived from the Baltic, Vice-Admiral A. V. Kolchak.
On April 30, 1918, the battleship and some other ships of the black sea fleet were transferred from Sevastopol occupied by the Germans to Novorossiysk. The German authorities, who occupied by that time most of the Crimea, demanded to return the ships to Sevastopol (after all, the Brest peace was already signed).
June 18, 1918, the ships of the squadron went to Sevastopol, but fourteen ships, including "Free Russia", according to the decision of the Soviet government, in order to avoid capture by the Germans remained in Novorossiysk. The battleship was sunk by torpedoes fired from the destroyer "Kerch". Later, 25 commercial steamers are sent to the bottom.
Taken in 1930, the extraction of Epron from the cellars of the ship of its ammunition led to an explosion (from the detonation of the detonation near the ship auxiliary charge, which wanted to clear the way to the cellar), destroyed the ship, why it has not been approached for a long time. And only in the pre-war years, together with the rise of the towers of "Empress Maria" remembered the towers of "Empress Catherine the great." In 1935 two towers were raised from the ship.
The model was built from scratch.
Patterns for the manufacture of the frame housing for the model I kindly provided Alexey Kolomiytsev.
All turning products for the model performed for me Vladimir Dudarev.
In the manufacture of all other structures used literature and the Internet.
The following literature was used in the construction of the model:
- AJ-Press - Encyclopedia Okretow Wojennych 30 - Pancerniki typu Impieratrica Maria
- Ships of the Fatherland, issue 02. "Battleships of the "Empress Maria"," (library of Gangut -SPb, 1993)
- Eisenberg B. A., Kostrichenko V. V. "Dreadnoughts of the Black sea" (Novorossiysk, 1998)
- Vinogradov S. E. "the Last giants" (St. Petersburg, 1999)
- Vinogradov, C. E. "the Linear ship 'Empress Maria"" (SPb, 2000)
- Vinogradov S. E. "Empress Maria" - return from the depths (St. Petersburg, 2002)
- Vinogradov S. E. "battleship "Empress Maria". Legend of the century" M. "Fifth Rome", 2017)
- Melnikov R. M. "Battleships of " Empress Maria" type " (midship-frame №81, 2003)
- Eisenberg B. A., Kostrichenko V. V. "Battleship "Empress Maria". The main secret of the Russian Navy" (Moscow, Eksmo, 2010)
Also, during the construction of the model, information from open sources of the Internet, in particular from resources, was used:
Part of this information was used by me as a reference material, and some quotes from the literature and from the above sites - used by me in the preparation of this explanatory note.
And, of course, a huge help in the creation of the model was provided by photos of both the ship and its model from the Museum of the Obukhov plant.
One of the external distinctive features of the battleship "Empress Catherine the Great" was the presence of elements of rapid identification (EBO) applied to the roofs of the towers of the main caliber, which were a repetition of the markings on the wings of the young Russian aircraft at that time.
As in the construction of previous models, the arm went all sorts of different materials, but mostly plastic Evergreen. Sheets of different thickness, shaped bars, tubes and tubes.... Well and any available materials from the apartment, even straws for cocktail party went into business. Helped needles for acupuncture (treatments are).
The GC towers were taken from the remains of my models of the Sevastopol series.
The case is standard: the DP, the set of frames, gasket foam and putty filler of conventional construction.
Deck - fine-grained veneer only 0.4 mm thick, plastic Base 0.75 mm,
And then went, obviously, the most interesting of all this construction: drawing on the deck of strips of Munz-metal, which prevented the separation of the deck flooring when firing from the main caliber guns.
Strips of Munz metal were applied to the deck as before - with acrylic paint using masks.
Painting model – acrylic.
If you want to learn more about the process of creating a model, you can go to:
In conclusion, I want to say the following: the model I presented as of November 1915, when the battleship was not yet anti-aircraft artillery on the towers of the main caliber, and was not dismantled farm fortrala.
In conclusion, I would like to Express my gratitude to all the participants of our Forum (and not only ours, and not only the Forum), which did not leave indifferent the process of creating this model.
Sincerely, Alexey Lezhnev.